The Catholic Church has, in all ages, understood both
the need for renewal and reformation of Christian
faith and living, and general revival in the Church as a
the need to teach the truth when confronted with error.
The Church exercised her teaching authority (under the
guidance of the Holy Spirit) and called the faithful people
entrusted with teaching others together in universal (ecumenical)
council for renewal and reformation, and when truths were
abandoned and error (heresy) was being taught (Titus 1:9).
The truth was expressed and defined; error and false teachers
, "let them [him, it] be anathema,