Was noted for the opposition to the Immaculate Conception
from some of the great doctors of scholasticism. The celebration
of the feast was not denied though. The difficulty arose from
the meaning of the universal redemption through Christ.
Franciscan theologians solved the difficulty. Christ, the most
perfect mediator, preserved Mary from original sin by an equally
perfect act of healing. Duns Scotus (Scotland, 1266-1308)
explained that the Immaculate Conception came through
God's application of the grace of Christ beforehand.