Unanimity is found across the universal church until the 11th
century. Berengar (Tours, France, 1000 - 1088) was one of the
deny the real presence
by arguing that Christ is not
physically present, but only symbolically.
The Council of Rome (a local council), 1079, taught against
Berengar that the Eucharist is truly the body and blood of Christ.
By the 16th century, some Reformers (excluding Luther)
also taught that Christ's presence in the Eucharist was only
figurative or metaphorical
. Since there were other opinions
being taught as truth (figurative presence and metaphorical
presence) a teaching authority had to be appealed to discern
error from the truth. The way of the Church was to follow
the model of Acts 15.